Table of Contents

Abbreviations Used in the Essay
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Foreword: Dr. John O Voll
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Editor's Note: Sabreen Akhter
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Acknowledgments
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Objectives of the Review
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Attitudes towards Prophet Muhammad
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I. The Seeker of Truth
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II. The Recipient of the Mantle of Prophethood/ The Warner and the Exhorter
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III. The Stoic Optimist
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IV. The Pluralistic Leader
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V. The Courageous Yet Reluctant Warrior
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VI. The Statesman par excellence and the Teacher
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VII. The Compassionate Ruler and Spiritual Leader
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Does this essay cover any new ground?
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Appendices
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The Sources for This Essay


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Prophet Muhammad's (S) Letter to Heraclius

In the name of Allah the Beneficent and the Merciful

(This letter) is from Muhammad (S), the servant of Allah and His Messenger to Heraclius, the ruler of Byzantine.
Peace be upon him who follows the right path. Further more I invite you to Islam and if you become a Muslim you will be safe, and Allah will double your reward and if you reject this invitation, you will be committing a sin by misguiding your arisiyin (subjects).
(And I recite to you Allah's statement)
"O people of the scripture! Come to a word common to you and us that we worship none but Allah and that we associate nothing in worship with Him and none of us shall take others as Lords besides Allah. Then if they turn away say: bear witness that we are Muslims" (Qur'an 3:64)