Table of Contents

Abbreviations Used in the Essay
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Foreword: Dr. John O Voll
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Editor's Note: Sabreen Akhter
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Acknowledgments
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Objectives of the Review
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Attitudes towards Prophet Muhammad
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I. The Seeker of Truth
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II. The Recipient of the Mantle of Prophethood/ The Warner and the Exhorter
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III. The Stoic Optimist
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IV. The Pluralistic Leader
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V. The Courageous Yet Reluctant Warrior
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VI. The Statesman par excellence and the Teacher
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VII. The Compassionate Ruler and Spiritual Leader
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Does this essay cover any new ground?
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Appendices
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The Sources for This Essay

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The Covenant of Madinah

In the name of Allah the Compassionate the Merciful

This is a document from Muhammad (S) the Prophet (governing the relations) between the Muslims of the Quraysh and the Madinah, and their allies who would follow them and fight with them.
1. They are one community (Ummah) to the exclusion of all men.
2. The Quraysh emigrants according to their present custom shall pay just recompense within their numbers and shall redeem their prisoners with kindness and justice, common among believers.
3. The Banu 'Awf according to their custom shall pay the just recompense they paid in heathenism: every section shall redeem its prisoners with the kindness and justice, common among believers
4-10. The Banu Sa'idah (clan of Khazraj) and the Banu al-Harith, and the Banu. Jusham, and the Banu. an- Najjar likewise. The Banu 'Amr (clan of Aws), the Banu.al-Nabit and the Banu al-Aws likewise.
11. The believers shall not leave anyone destitute among them by not paying his redemption money or just recompense in kindness.
12. A believer shall not take as an ally (mawla) the freedman of another Muslim against him.
13. The Allah-fearing believers shall be against the rebellious or him who seeks to spread injustice, or sin or enmity or corruption between believers; the hand of every man shall be against him, even if he were a son of one of them.
14. A believer shall not slay a believer, nor shall he aid an unbeliever against a believer.
15. Allah's obligation is uniform for all. The weakest among the believers can grant protection to another and make it obligatory for all believers to honor his protection. Believers are friends to one another the exclusion of outsiders.
16. To the Jew who is an ally belong help and equality. He shall not be wronged nor shall his enemies be aided.
17. The peace of the believers is indivisible. No separate peace shall be made when believers are fighting in the path of Allah, until the peace is equitable to all.
18. In every foray all groups will be behind each other (support each other)
19. The believers must avenge the blood of another shed in the way of Allah.
20. The Allah- fearing believers enjoy the best and the most upright guidance.
21. A polytheist shall not take the property or person of Quraysh under his protection, nor shall he intervene against a believer.
22. The killing a believer without good reason, as proven by reliable witnesses, shall be subject to retaliation unless the next of kin are satisfied (with just recompense). The believers shall be against him as one man, and they are bound to act against him and convict him regardless of who he is.
23. It shall not be lawful to a believer who holds what is in the document and believes in Allah and the last day to help an evildoer or to shelter him. If he does so the curse of Allah and His anger on the day of resurrection will be upon him and neither repentance nor ransom will be received from him.
24. Whenever you differ about a matter it must be referred to Allah and to Muhammad (S).
25. The Jews shall contribute to the cost of war so long as they are fighting alongside the believers.
26. The Jews of Banu 'Awf. are one community with the believers (the Jews have their religion and the Muslims have theirs) and their freedmen, except those who behave unjustly and sinfully, for they hurt but themselves and their families.
27-36. The same applies to Jews of the Banu an-Najjar, Banu al-Harith, Banu Sa'idah, Banu Jusham, Banu al-Aws, Banu Tha'labah and the Jafna clan of the Tha'labah, and the Banu al-Shutayba. Loyalty is a protection against treachery. The same applies to the freedmen of Tha'labah and the close friends of Jews.
37. None of them shall go out to war save with the permission of Muhammad (S)
38. He shall not be prevented from taking revenge for an injury. He who slays a man without warning slays himself and his household, unless it be one who has wronged him, for Allah will accept that.
39. The Jews must bear their expenses and Muslims theirs.
40. Each must help the other against anyone who attacks the people of this document. They shall seek mutual advice and consultation, and loyalty is a protection against treachery.
41. A man is not liable for his ally's misdeeds. The wronged must be helped.
42. The Jews must pay with the believers so long as the war lasts.
43. Madinah shall be a sanctuary for people of this document.
44.A stranger under protection shall be as his host. He will not be harmed and no crime will be committed against him.
45. A woman shall be not given protection without the consent of her family.
46. If any dispute or controversy likely to cause trouble should arise it must be referred to Allah and to Muhammad (S) the Apostle of Allah. Allah accepts what is nearest to piety and goodness in this document.
47. Quraysh and their helpers shall not be given protection.
48. The contracting parties are bound to help one another against any attack on Madinah
49. If they are called to make peace and maintain it they must do so; and if they make a similar demand on the Muslims it must be carried out except in the case of a war to protect Din . (Haaraab fi ad--Din).
50. Everyone shall defend whom he is faced with.
51. The Jews of al-Aws and their freedmen and themselves have the same standing with the people of this document.
52. This deed will not protect the unjust and the sinner. The man who goes forth to fight and the man who stays at home in the city are safe unless he has been unjust and has sinned.
53. God is the protector of the good and the Allah-fearing, and Muhammad (S) his Apostle Allah is his ally.